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Euskaldunen artean, euskara hizkuntza nagusi dutenak gero eta gutxiago

2023/11/02 sustatu.com -- Albiste originala ikusi

"Askotan esan izan denaren kontra, bereziki ahul dago euskara hizkuntza-gaitasunean", dio Iñaki Iurrebaso soziolinguistak. Ez dakigu Netflixeko azpidatzuena horren sintoma den, baina hortxe egon daiteke gako bat. Iurrebasoren iritziz "Euskara nagusi izango duten eta euskaraz erdaraz baino errazago arituko diren hiztunak ugaritzea funtsezko erronka da etorkizunari begira." Horixe azaltzen, artikulua argitaratu berri du Administrazioa Euskaraz aldizkarian: "Euskara nagusi izango duten hiztunen bila".

2021eko inkesta soziolinguistikoaren datuei erreparatu die Iurrebasok. Beste aditu batzuk aipatuz, "ia hiztun elebidun guztiek hizkuntza bat edo bestea dute nagusi, bietako batean hobeto/ errazago moldatuko dira bestean baino. Oro har, gehien erabili izan duten hizkuntzan izango dute hitz egiteko erraztasun handiagoa. Eta gaitasun mugatuagoa izango dute beste hiz­kuntzan. Ez alferrik, zenbat eta gehiago erabili, orduan eta gehiago fintzen/ zorrozten/garatzen den tresna baita hizkuntza hiztunen ahotan."

Euskararen kasuan, euskaraz errazago egiten dutenak erdaraz baino % 7,9 baino ez dira gaur egun, 212.838 hiztun Euskal Herri osoan. Grafikoa ere argitaratu da Administrazioa Euskaraz aldizkarian.

Datu horietatik, euskaraz egiteko gai direnetara begiratuta, beste datu eta grafiko parea gehitu dugu guk honako, Sustaturako. Adi:

Tarta-grafikoa gehitu diogu goian marraztu dugunari:

Urteetako eboluazioan, euskareaz dakitenen multzia handi egin da 1991ko % 22,4tik 2021eko % 30,2ra. Baina ez da handitu, ordea, euskaraz errazago mintzatzen direla dioten hiztunen multzoa, eus- kal nagusitasunezko hiztunen multzoa alegia: % 7,7 ziren 1991n, eta % 7,9 dira 2021ean.

Gaur egunean, 800.000 lagun pasatxo gara euskaraz egiteko gai, baina horien artean laurden bat pasatxo bakarrik da euskaraz erdaraz baino hobeto egiteko gai, goiko grafikoko alde horixka horretakoak.

Datuei erreparatuta, hizkuntza-gaitasunari dagokionez, zera ondorioztatzen du Iurrebasok: "Desoreka handia dago egungo Euskal Herrian: gaztelaniaren/frantsesaren gaitasuna in­dar­tsu azal­tzen zaigu, eta euskal gaitasuna ahul. Datu horiek eta euskara-erdararen egoerei buruz bildu ditugun beste hainbatek (erabilerari, transmisioari, hizkuntza-bilakaerari eta hizkun­tzek lurraldean duten nagusitasunari buruzkoek, zehaz­ki) zera ondoriozta­tzera garama­tzate: minorizazio gorriko egoeran dago euskara".

Eta Iurrebasok eskatzen duena hemendik aurrerako hizkuntza-politiketarako: "Euskara indarberrituko bada, hortaz, euskaraz hitz egiteko oinarrizko gaitasun bat duten hiztunen multzoa handitzea bezain garrantzitsua izango da euskara hizkuntza nagusi dutenen multzoa handitzea, errazago euskaraz hitz egiten dutenena, alegia. (...) Euskaraz aritzeko erraztasunean sakontzeko proiektuak indartzea/osatzea ezinbesteko ildoa behar du, belaunaldi berrien ahozkotasunari-informaltasunari-jariotasunari lotutako alderdietan bereziki".

Baina nola hori? Iurrebasok onartzen du proposamen argiak baino gehiago galderak datozkiola bati burura... Tira, hemen da artikulua, eta Iurrebasoren hausnarketari gehitu diezaiokezue zuena, nahi baduzue.


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